Installation Guide for Beginners 0.8.0-1

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Overview

Tip: If possible, ensure that you are connected to the internet prior to booting from your installation media (e.g. disc, USB flash drive, or even an ISO file directly if booting in Oracle's Virtualbox). If you have a hard-wired connection via an ethernet cable, then Manjaro will automatically connect to the internet without you having to do anything. Otherwise, once you have booted into Manjaro's desktop, you will need to select and then connect to your wireless network.


The assisted and non-assisted installation methods provided are virtually identical. The only difference between them is found in the chosen method of preparing your PC's hard disk during the installation process. This assisted installation is more suitable for beginners. In this instance, the installer will automatically prepare the hard disk for you based on your chosen specifications. The guide for this method is also written with complete beginners in mind as well.


Warning: If you chose this option, your entire hard-disk will be completely erased during the installation process, along with any existing operating system(s) already installed. Manjaro will be installed alone.


The Installation Guide for Experienced Users is more suitable for those experienced or at least comfortable with the prospect of manually partitioning their hard disks. Manually partitioning the hard drive provides the ability to retain and therefore dual-boot with any other operating system already installed.


Pre-installation: Setting Your Language and Keyboard Layout

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Once Manjaro has booted, you should be presented with the Manjaro boot screen. However, don't actually boot into anything just yet! First it will be necessary to set your preferred language and keyboard layout. While the benefits of using your main language and keyboard layout for the installation process itself may be obvious, setting these now will also make configuring your installed system much faster and easier, too.

Tip: Setting the language and keyboard layout - as shown below - are undertaken through pressing the Function (F) keys. As many computers have multiple functions assigned to each function key, it may be necessary to hold down another key first to use them. For example, on a HP G62 laptop, to use the function keys, the 'fn' key must first be pressed and held.


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First, set your preferred language by pressing the F2 key. The options available can be highlighted for selection by using the up or down arrow keys on your keyboard. In this instance, British English has been highlighted for the user. Once selected, press <enter> to confirm and be taken back to the boot menu.

note: Don't worry if your preferred language isn't listed here. A far wider range of languages can be selected for your installed system during the configuration process later.


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Second, set your preferred keyboard (keymap) by pressing the F3 key. Again, the options available can be highlighted for selection by using the up or down arrow keys on your keyboard. In this instance, English GB (Great Britain) has been highlighted for the user. Once selected, press <enter> to confirm and be taken back to the boot menu.


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With the initial preparations completed, Manjaro can now be booted to begin the installation process. Two primary options are available:

1. Boot Manjaro Linux - boots using free / open-source graphics drivers developed by the Linux community
2. Boot Manjaro Linux with non-free graphics drivers - boots using proprietary graphics drivers (i.e. drivers developed and owned by the manufacturers of graphics cards)
Tip: For the best results, select the 'Boot Manjaro Linux with non-free graphics drivers'. This should match the right manufacturer's driver(s) your particular graphics card(s).

In this instance, Manjaro is being booted using the non-free graphics drivers option. Again, use the arrow keys to highlight your choice, and then press <enter> to continue.


Starting the Installation Process

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As seen here, Manjaro 0.8.1 with the XFCE desktop environment is to be installed. However, irrespective of the Manjaro flavour (i.e. desktop environment) you wish to chose, the installation process will still be the same.

Tip: If you wish to connect to the internet using a wireless connection, now is the time to do it!

To begin the installation process, close the welcome window, and then double-click the "Manjaro CLI Installer" icon.


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The installer will begin with some good advice: Follow the steps IN ORDER.

Press <enter> to continue.


Setting the Date and Time

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Set Date and Time should already be highlighted. If not use your arrow keys to do so.

Press <enter> to continue.


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Ensure that UTC (Co-ordinated Universal Time - the primary time standard by which the world regulates its clocks and times) is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.


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Highlight the region you live in. In this instance, Europe has been chosen, as this is the general region applicable to Great Britain.

Press <enter> to continue.


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Select your time zone by highlighting the appropriate capital city. In this instance, London has been chosen, as this is appropriate to the time zone of Great Britain.

Tip: As there are a lot of cities to chose from, you can skip forwards in the menu by entering the first letter of the appropriate city, which will take you to the first listed city beginning with that letter. For example, to skip closer to London, press 'L', which will highlight Lisbon, the first city in the list to begin with that letter.

Press <enter> to continue.


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Set the date. If you are already connected to the internet, then this should already be set for you. Otherwise, use the <tab> key to switch between the day, month, and year elements, and use the up or down arrow keys to change them.

Ensure that OK is highlighted, and press <enter> to be taken back to the main installation menu.



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Finally, set the time. Again, if you are already connected to the internet, then this should already be set for you. Otherwise, use the <tab> key to switch between the hours, minutes, and seconds elements, and use the up or down arrow keys to change them.

Ensure that OK is highlighted, and press <enter> to be taken back to the main installation menu.


Preparing the Hard Disk

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With the first step complete, now it is time to prepare your computer's hard disk for the installation. Again, in this tutorial the assisted preparation method will be chosen, which is most suitable for beginners.

Ensure that Disk(s) Preparation is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.


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Ensure that Assisted Preparation (erases the whole disk) is highlighted. As the option would suggest, this will erase your entire hard disk. Make sure you have backed your files up somewhere (e.g. disc, USB flash drive, internet, etc.).

note: The space to be set aside on your hard disk for each step of this stage is measured in megabytes (MB). It is also important to keep in mind how much hard disk space you have remaining for each step. In this tutorial, the total hard disk space being used is 15,000MB (15 gigabytes / GB).

Press <enter> to continue.


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Set the amount of hard disk space for the GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader). This is responsible for booting up Manjaro after your computer is turned on. The default value of 100 (MB) is more than sufficient.

Press <enter> to continue.


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Set the amount of hard disk space for the Swap partition. Should your computer run out of memory (RAM) while it is being used, the hard drive can be used to compensate as a form of virtual RAM. This is what the Swap partition is for. The default value of 512MB (MB) should be entirely sufficient, especially for modern computers with several gigabytes of memory.

Press <enter> to continue.



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Set the amount of hard disk space for the Root Partition. This is where Manjaro itself will be stored (i.e. all its system files). This is also where your installed applications will be stored. The default value of 5,500 MB (5.5GB) is relatively small, particularly as a lot of this space will be taken up by Manjaro itself.

Where possible - and assuming the hard disk space is available - it is recommended to set the value of the Root partition to at least 10,000 MB (10GB). Just ensure that this leaves plenty of space for your Home partition, which which where all your personal files (e.g. documents, videos, images, music, etc.) will be stored. In this example, of the 15,000 MB available on the hard disk, the default value of 5,500 MB is being allocated for the Root partition.

Press <enter> to continue.



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As 5.5GB of the available 15GB hard-disk space has been set aside for the Root partition, as confirmed by the installer, 9,500 MB (9.5GB) has been left over for the Home partition. Again, the Home partition is where all your personal files (including VDI files, if you use Virtualbox) will be stored.

If you are not happy with the amount of space remaining, highlight No and press <enter> to return to setting the amount of space for your root partition. Otherwise, ensure that Yes is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.



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Set the file system to be used to manage your files. Different file systems can handle different file sizes, numbers of files, and so on. If you are unsure which file system to choose, as illustrated, it is recommend to select ext4 - this is one of the latest and perhaps most widely used Linux file systems.

Press <enter> to continue



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Confirm that you wish to use your selected file system. If you wish to review or perhaps change your selection, highlight No and press <enter> to be taken back to the list of available file systems. Otherwise, ensure that Yes is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.


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A warning will now appear that proceeding will result in your hard disk (referred to as /dev/sda) being completely erased. If you do not wish to continue, highlight No and press <enter> to be taken back to the hard disk preparation menu. Otherwise, ensure that Yes is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.



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The installer will take a few moments to set up your hard disk (and in the process, completely erase any data that was previously stored on it). Once complete, the illustrated confirmation message will appear.

Press <enter> to confirm, complete the step to prepare your hard disk, and be taken back to the hard disk preparation menu.



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As this step has been completed, highlight main menu and press <enter> to be taken back to the installer's main menu.


Installing Manjaro

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With the second step complete, now it is time to install Manjaro.

Ensure that Install System is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.


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Press <enter> to start the installation process.


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After a few moments, a confirmation message will appear to confirm the system has been successfully installed. Well, that was easy!

Press <enter> to continue.


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The installer will now automatically configure your system, detect your hardware, and install the appropriate drivers. It will also update your pacman mirrorlist, meaning that it will find the available Manjaro servers from which you will be able to download updates, software packages, and applications. Please be patient, as this process may take a minute or two.

note: The pacman mirrorlist will not be able to update unless you are connected to the internet.

Once complete, you will automatically be returned back to the installer's main menu.


Configuring Manjaro

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With the third step complete, now it is time to manually configure a few elements of Manjaro.

Ensure that Configure System is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.


Root Password

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Set the Root password. In a nutshell, Root is a standard user account included in Linux distributions by default that has full and unrestricted access to the system. Root is necessary to have in order to install, change, or manipulate system files.

Ensure that Change Root Password is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.



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Type in your chosen Root password. You can enter just about anything you like.

Tip: Passwords will be case sensitive. To use the password down the line, upper and lower case letters will have to match exactly. Oh, and use a password you'll be able to remember!

Once complete, ensuring that OK is highlighted, press <enter> to continue. You will then have to re-enter the Root password again to confirm it. Once again, ensure that OK is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.



User Account

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Set up your own user account. To protect the system, you will not be expected to use the system as a Root user at all times. As such, you will also create your own personal account.

Ensure that Setup user account(s) is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.


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Type in your chosen account / login name. The default name is manjaro, which can be changed by deleting it and replacing it with your own. In this instance, the username carl has been entered.

Warning: Although you can enter almost anything you like, ensure that any and all letters in the name are in lower case.

When finished, ensure that OK is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.


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Confirm that you wish to get sudo rights. Sudo is short for 'Super User Do', and means that your own account will be granted the same system privileges as the Root account. That way, you will not have to switch to the Root account to undertake certain tasks, such as adding or removing system files or software applications. However, undertaking such tasks using your personal account will require you to enter your password to continue, which will be set up next.

Ensure that OK is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.



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Type in your chosen password for your own personal account. Again, you can enter just about anything you like.

Tip: To keep things simple, you can just type the same password used for the Root account.

Once complete, ensuring that OK is highlighted, press <enter> to continue. You will then have to re-enter your password again to confirm it. Once again, ensure that OK is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.


Configuration Files

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It will be necessary now to manually check / alter some key configuration files for Manjaro. These relate to language support, keyboard layout, and software server access.

Tip: If you were able to select your preferred language and keyboard layout right at the beginning, then virtually everything should already have been configured for you; just pat yourself on the back and check each file to make sure. Otherwise, making the necessary changes won't be too difficult or time consuming.

Ensure that Edit system configuration (optional) is highlighted. To be honest, this really isn't that optional!

Press <enter> to continue.


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Edit System Languages. Editing this file will allow you to chose what and how many different languages your Manjaro installation will support. This includes any special characters (i.e. outside of the English 26 letter alphabet) they use.

Tip: It is possible for the system to support multiple languages; you are not restricted to just one or two.

Ensure that Edit system languages is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.


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A list of codes will be presented, most of which will have a hash / pound sign in front of them (#). Notice too that the codes themselves begin with two lower case letters followed by two upper case letters. The lower case letters stand for the language, and the upper case letters stand for the country: language_COUNTRY. For example, en_GB stands for English, Great Britain and en_US stands for English, United States. If you are not sure what code represents your language and country, a small selection of examples are available here (ignore the use of dashes '-' instead of underscores '_'). The UTF-8 and ISO parts of each line represent the character encoding schemes used by the system. It is not important to know this part.

To enable Manjaro to support your desired language(s), remove the # from the front of the appropriate codes ending with UTF-8 and ISO where possible. If you were able to set your preferred language at the beginning, it will just be a matter of checking to ensure that the hashes have already been removed.

Once finished, hold the CTRL button down and press X to exit. If you have made any changes you will be prompted to type 'y' to confirm that they should be saved before pressing <enter> to return to the configuration file menu.


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Edit default used language. Editing this file will allow you to set the main language to be used by Manjaro as standard.

Ensure that Edit default used language is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.


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The default language to be used by Manjaro is set by the LANG= command. As illustrated, the UTF-8 code for English, Great Britain has already been set. If you were able to set your preferred language at the beginning, yours should already be set, too.

Otherwise, it will be necessary to manually replace the UTF-8 code with your own choice after 'LANG='.

Warning: ALWAYS use the UTF-8 code of your chosen language alone if you can. Also note that the UTF-8 part of the code is not listed twice here, despite being listed as such in the System Languages configuration file.

Once finished, hold the CTRL button down and press X to exit. If you have made any changes you will be prompted to type 'y' to confirm that they should be saved before pressing <enter> to return to the configuration file menu.


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Edit Environment Language. Editing this file will allow you to set the language used by Manjaro when displaying information /messages to you (i.e. not the same as the default language supported by the software applications you may use).

Ensure that Edit Environment Language is highlighted.

Press <enter to continue>.


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The language code (LANG=) in this file should be exactly the same as set in the default language configuration file. As illustrated, the UTF-8 code for English, Great Britain has already been set, and is exactly the same code as used in the default language configuration file. Once again, if you were able to set your preferred language at the beginning, yours should already be set, too.

Otherwise, it will be necessary to manually replace the UTF-8 code with your own choice after 'LANG='.

Warning: ALWAYS use the UTF-8 code of your chosen language alone if you can. Also note that the UTF-8 part of the code is not listed twice here, despite being listed as such in the System Languages configuration file.

Once finished, hold the CTRL button down and press X to exit. If you have made any changes you will be prompted to type 'y' to confirm that they should be saved before pressing <enter> to return to the configuration file menu.


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Edit Packages mirror list. Editing this file will allow you to select the most appropriate Manjaro internet servers from which to download updates, files, and applications. Although any and all of them will work, in general, the closer the location of the server to you, the better the download speed.

Ensure that Packages mirror list is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue


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A list of countries with internet addresses of servers below them will be presented. All of these have hash / pound signs (#) in front of them, meaning these lines will be ignored by Manjaro. They are listed there as a table for your reference. The '...' followed by numbers at the end of each internet address indicates the download speed of each server.

At the bottom of the screen are lines beginning with the command Server = - these are the actual lines that determine which servers Manjaro will connect to. As a general rule, Manjaro will try to connect to the servers in the order they are listed. If it cannot connect to the first for any reason, then it will try the second, and so on.

Check the server addresses at the bottom of the screen against the hashed country reference table above to determine if the correct servers have been listed, and in the correct order. You can change the order as you wish; just make sure each line begins with the Server command (Server =), and that the internet address is correct (using copy and paste helps!). You can also place a # in front of any listed servers you do not want.

Once finished, hold the CTRL button down and press X to exit. If you have made any changes you will be prompted to type 'y' to confirm that they should be saved before pressing <enter> to return to the configuration file menu.

Warning: If you decide to copy and paste any of the internet addresses listed in the table, you MUST remember to remove the dots and numbers after them, otherwise they will not work. In addition, if you decide to take a hash away from any of the servers listed in the table to use them - which is possible - remember to start it with the Server command, as well as removing the dots and numbers at the end, otherwise it will not work.


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Edit Console keyboard layout. Edit the final configuration file to select the appropriate keyboard layout for your country.

Ensure that Console keyboard layout is highlighted.

Press <enter to continue>.


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The default language to be used by Manjaro is set by the KEYMAP= command. As illustrated, the key map has already been set for the United Kingdon (i.e. Great Britain). If you were able to set your keyboard layout at the beginning, yours should already be set, too.

Otherwise, it will be necessary to manually enter your own keymap, which may also necessitate specifying the font to be used for it (otherwise special characters may appear as white squares). The Archwiki can provide further information for this: Archwiki Keymap, Archwiki Fonts, and Archwiki Installation Guide.

Once finished, hold the CTRL button down and press X to exit. If you have made any changes you will be prompted to type 'y' to confirm that they should be saved before pressing <enter> to return to the configuration file menu.


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With the configuration complete (phew!) it's time to return first to the configuration menu, and then main installation menu, for the final (and very easy!) step to complete the installation process.

Tip: Nothing done here is set in stone, so don't worry if you need to change any of the configurations settings after Manjaro has been installed. This includes the ability to edit the mirror list for the download servers at any time.

Ensure that Back is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.


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Return to the main installation menu.

Ensure that Main Menu is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.


Installing the Bootloader

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With the configuration complete, the fifth - and final - step to install the bootloader can be undertaken. As the name would suggest, the bootloader is responsible for booting up (i.e. starting) Manjaro when you turn your computer on.

Ensure that Install Bootloader is highlighted.

Press <enter> to continue.


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Ensure that Install GRUB2 (needed to boot) is highlighted. 'GRUB' stands for GRand Unified Bootloader.

Press <enter> to continue.


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A confirmation message will appear, stating the target partition (place on your hard disk) where GRUB2 is to be installed. The default settings are fine.

Press <enter> to start the installation.


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After a few seconds a confirmation message will appear, stating that GRUB2 has been successfully installed.

Press <enter> to be taken back to the main installer menu.


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All done - Now highlight Quit to finish the installation!

Press <enter> to continue.


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The installer will take a few moments to finalise the installation. When completed, a message will appear stating that the installation has indeed finished.

Press <enter> to close the installer and return to the Manjaro desktop environment.


Starting the Manjaro Installation

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With this done, you can now reboot your computer to start your newly installed Manjaro operating system - Congratulations!!!


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Oh, and as illustrated, you will be reminded to remove your installation media before pressing <enter> to continue the reboot. If you don't do this, you'll end up booting right back into the installation media itself again.

Tip: The first thing you should do upon booting up into Manjaro is to update your system.



See Also