Manjaro Difference between revisions of "Firewalls"

Difference between revisions of "Firewalls"

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= UFW =  
<translate>
=Overview= <!--T:1-->


Ufw stands for Uncomplicated FireWall, and is a program for managing a netfilter firewall. It provides a command line interface and aims to be uncomplicated and easy to use.
<!--T:2-->
Running a local firewall is almost always a good practice.  Even when you are behind a network firewall, a local firewall protects you from threats on the inside of your network.


== Installation ==
=UFW= <!--T:3-->


To install ufw package:
<!--T:4-->
UFW stands for Uncomplicated FireWall, and is a program for managing a netfilter firewall. It provides a command line interface and aims to be uncomplicated and easy to use.  UFW is far simpler than iptables and a good place to start unless you have very specialized needs.


sudo pacman -S ufw
==Installing UFW== <!--T:5-->


== Warning about iptables ==
<!--T:6-->
You can install the {{ic|ufw}} package using you favorite package manager or the command:
<tvar|usercmd1>{{UserCmd|command=pamac install ufw}}</>


It is worth noting that while ufw uses iptables to do its job, you should not enable its service while using ufw.
<!--T:7-->
Once UFW is installed you need to start and enable it using the commands:
<tvar|usercmd2>{{UserCmd|command=sudo systemctl enable ufw.service}}</>
<tvar|usercmd3>{{UserCmd|command=sudo ufw enable}}</>


'''While using the ufw service, do not enable iptables.service'''
<!--T:8-->
{{warning|Don't enable both iptables.service and ufw.service}}


== Basic configuration ==
==Adding Rules== <!--T:9-->


Users will need root or sudo priveleges to use ufw.  
<!--T:10-->
To view the current configuration you can use the command {{ic|ufw status}}. Here is what it looks like in a new install:


The following commands are an example of how to set up a very simplistic configuration which will deny all by default, allow any protocol from inside a 192.168.0.1-192.168.0.255 LAN, and allow incoming Deluge and SSH traffic from anywhere:
<!--T:38-->
<tvar|usercmdoutput1>{{UserCmdOutput|command=sudo ufw status verbose|result=
<pre>Status: active
Logging: on (low)
Default: deny (incoming), allow (outgoing), disabled (routed)
New profiles: skip</pre>
}}</>


sudo ufw default deny
<!--T:11-->
sudo ufw allow from 192.168.0.0/24
This indicates that it will block all incoming traffic and allow all outgoing traffic. This is a good starting point for most desktop systems. However, often we will want to allow some incoming trafficThis can be done with the command {{ic|ufw allow}}.  For example, if we want to allow incoming ssh traffic so we can connect to the machine from other machines on the network we could use the command:
  sudo ufw allow qbittorrent
  <tvar|usercmd4>{{UserCmd|command=sudo ufw allow ssh}}</>
  sudo ufw allow SSH


The next line is only needed ''once'' the first time you install the package:  
<!--T:12-->
If we wanted to also tcp connections to a local webserver on a non-standard https port, 8443.  We could use the command:
<tvar|usercmd5>{{UserCmd|command=sudo ufw allow in 8443/tcp}}</>


sudo ufw enable
<!--T:13-->
{{tip|When you don't specify "in" or "out", "in" is assumed}}


Then enable the ufw as a systemd service:
==UFW and Applications== <!--T:14-->


  systemctl enable ufw && systemctl start ufw
<!--T:15-->
You may notice a difference in the above two commands. When we built the rules for ssh we used the name and for https we used the port number, 8443.  This is because UFW has a small database of applications it knows the ports for.  You can see the list with the command:
<tvar|usercmd5>{{UserCmd|command=sudo ufw app list}}</>


You can check on the the status of ufw and rules with the following command:
<!--T:16-->
For applications on the list you can add them by name.  If you want to review the configuration for one of the applications, you can use the command {{ic|ufw app info}}.  For example, to the configuration for ssh:


  sudo ufw status
<!--T:17-->
 
  <tvar|usercmdoutput2>{{UserCmdOutput|command=sudo ufw app info SSH|result=
Users should also be aware that builtin-rules do exist. These include filters to allow UPNP, AVAHI and DHCP replies. To see a more full report one may use
<pre>Profile: SSH
Title: SSH server
Description: SSH server
   
   
sudo ufw show raw 
Port:
  22/tcp</pre>
}}</>


{{Note|If special network variables are set in {{ic|/etc/sysctl.d/*}}, it may be necessary to update {{ic|/etc/ufw/sysctl.conf}} accordingly, as this configuration overrides the default settings.}}
<!--T:18-->
{{tip|When using ufw app the commands are case sensitive but when adding rules they are not}}


== Adding more applications ==
<!--T:19-->
Some additional preconfigured applications can be added by installing the package {{ic|ufw-extras}} with your favorite package manager or the command:
<tvar|usercmd7>{{UserCmd|command=pamac install ufw-extras}}</>


The PKG comes with some defaults based on the default ports of many common daemons and programs.  Inspect the options by looking in the {{ic|/etc/ufw/applications.d}} directory or by listing them in the program itself:
==Removing Rules== <!--T:20-->


  sudo ufw app list
<!--T:21-->
Rules can be removed with the {{ic|ufw delete}} command.  For example, to delete our 8443 rules we could use the command:
  <tvar|usercmd8>{{UserCmd|command=sudo ufw delete allow 8443/tcp}}</>


Extra configuration files can be installed through package {{ic|ufw-extras}}
<!--T:22-->
You can also delete them by number.  This is easier if you have a numbered list which you can see with the command:


sudo pacman -S ufw-extras
<!--T:23-->
<tvar|usercmdoutput3>{{UserCmdOutput|command=sudo ufw status numbered|result=
<pre>Status: active
To                        Action      From
    --                        ------      ----
[ 1] 22                        ALLOW IN    Anywhere
[ 2] 22 (v6)                    ALLOW IN    Anywhere (v6)
</pre>}}</>


For custom application settings such as a non-standard port, it is recommended to simply create {{ic|/etc/ufw/applications.d/custom}} containing the needed data using the defaults as a guide.
<!--T:24-->
Now if we wanted to stop allowing ssh on ipv6 we could use the command:
<tvar|usercmd9>{{UserCmd|command=sudo ufw delete 2}}</>


= GUFW =
==GUFW== <!--T:25-->
[[File:gufw.jpg|thumb|left|240px]]
[[File:gufw.jpg|thumb|left|240px]]


Not comfortable in the command-line and still want to manage your firewall? Thats fine.
<!--T:26-->
Prefer to use GUI applications and still want to manage your firewall? No problem.  GUFW is a GTK front-end for UFW that aims to make managing a Linux firewall as accessible and easy as possible. It features pre-sets for common ports and p2p applications.


GUFW is a GTK front-end for Ufw that aims to make managing a Linux firewall as accessible and easy as possible. It features pre-sets for common ports and p2p applications.
<!--T:27-->
If it is not installed already gufw can be installed from the repos:
<tvar|usercmdA>{{UserCmd|command=pamac install gufw}}</>


== Installation ==
<!--T:28-->
It will now be available in the menu as '''Firewall Configuration''' or by running {{ic|gufw}} directly.
<div style="clear: both"></div>


If it is not installed already gufw can be installed from the repos:
=iptables= <!--T:29-->
 
<!--T:30-->
iptables is included as part of the Linux kernel.  iptables is significantly more complicated than using a tool like UFW.  As a result, a full tutorial on iptables is beyond the scope of this wiki.  Using iptables on Manjaro should be the same for every distribution of Linux so there is plenty of available documentation.  Some of this is linked [[Firewalls#See_Also|below]].  Here are some basics to get you started.
 
<!--T:31-->
To enable loading rules on startup you can use the command:
<tvar|usercmdB>{{UserCmd|command=sudo systemctl enable iptables.service}}</>


sudo pacman -S gufw
<!--T:32-->
This will load the rules from the file {{ic|/etc/iptables/iptables.rules}}.


= More information =
<!--T:33-->
To display the currently loaded rules:
<tvar|usercmdC>{{UserCmd|command=sudo iptables -L}}</>


That should cover the basics. To learn more see
<!--T:34-->
To save the current rules to a file
<tvar|usercmdD>{{UserCmd|command=sudo sh -c "iptables-save > /etc/iptables/iptables.rules"}}</>


man ufw
<!--T:35-->
  man gufw
To load the rules from a file
  <tvar|usercmdE>{{UserCmd|command=sudo sh -c "iptables-restore > /etc/iptables/iptables.rules"}}</>


And of course visit the [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Ufw Arch Wiki.]
<!--T:36-->
To allow ssh connections
<tvar|usercmdF>{{UserCmd|command=sudo iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT}}</>
<tvar|usercmdG>{{UserCmd|command=sudo iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --sport 22 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT}}</>


=See Also= <!--T:37-->
* The Arch Wiki on [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Ufw UFW]
* The [https://help.ubuntu.com/community/UFW UFW website]
* The [http://gufw.org/ GUFW website]
* The [https://linux.die.net/man/8/iptables iptables man page]
* The Arch Wiki on [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/iptables iptables]
* The Debian Wiki on [https://wiki.debian.org/iptables iptables]
</translate>


[[Category:Contents Page]]
[[Category:Contents Page{{#translation:}}]]
[[Category:Security{{#translation:}}]]

Latest revision as of 09:12, 25 December 2021

Other languages:
English • ‎فارسی • ‎中文(中国大陆)‎

Overview

Running a local firewall is almost always a good practice. Even when you are behind a network firewall, a local firewall protects you from threats on the inside of your network.

UFW

UFW stands for Uncomplicated FireWall, and is a program for managing a netfilter firewall. It provides a command line interface and aims to be uncomplicated and easy to use. UFW is far simpler than iptables and a good place to start unless you have very specialized needs.

Installing UFW

You can install the ufw package using you favorite package manager or the command:

user $ pamac install ufw COPY TO CLIPBOARD


Once UFW is installed you need to start and enable it using the commands:

user $ sudo systemctl enable ufw.service COPY TO CLIPBOARD


user $ sudo ufw enable COPY TO CLIPBOARD



Warning
Don't enable both iptables.service and ufw.service

Adding Rules

To view the current configuration you can use the command ufw status. Here is what it looks like in a new install:

$ sudo ufw status verbose
Status: active
Logging: on (low)
Default: deny (incoming), allow (outgoing), disabled (routed)
New profiles: skip


This indicates that it will block all incoming traffic and allow all outgoing traffic. This is a good starting point for most desktop systems. However, often we will want to allow some incoming traffic. This can be done with the command ufw allow. For example, if we want to allow incoming ssh traffic so we can connect to the machine from other machines on the network we could use the command:

user $ sudo ufw allow ssh COPY TO CLIPBOARD


If we wanted to also tcp connections to a local webserver on a non-standard https port, 8443. We could use the command:

user $ sudo ufw allow in 8443/tcp COPY TO CLIPBOARD




Tip
When you don't specify "in" or "out", "in" is assumed

UFW and Applications

You may notice a difference in the above two commands. When we built the rules for ssh we used the name and for https we used the port number, 8443. This is because UFW has a small database of applications it knows the ports for. You can see the list with the command:

user $ sudo ufw app list COPY TO CLIPBOARD


For applications on the list you can add them by name. If you want to review the configuration for one of the applications, you can use the command ufw app info. For example, to the configuration for ssh:

$ sudo ufw app info SSH
Profile: SSH
Title: SSH server
Description: SSH server
 
 
Port:
  22/tcp



Tip
When using ufw app the commands are case sensitive but when adding rules they are not

Some additional preconfigured applications can be added by installing the package ufw-extras with your favorite package manager or the command:

user $ pamac install ufw-extras COPY TO CLIPBOARD


Removing Rules

Rules can be removed with the ufw delete command. For example, to delete our 8443 rules we could use the command:

user $ sudo ufw delete allow 8443/tcp COPY TO CLIPBOARD


You can also delete them by number. This is easier if you have a numbered list which you can see with the command:

$ sudo ufw status numbered
Status: active
To                         Action      From
     --                         ------      ----
[ 1] 22                         ALLOW IN    Anywhere
[ 2] 22 (v6)                    ALLOW IN    Anywhere (v6)


Now if we wanted to stop allowing ssh on ipv6 we could use the command:

user $ sudo ufw delete 2 COPY TO CLIPBOARD


GUFW

Gufw.jpg

Prefer to use GUI applications and still want to manage your firewall? No problem. GUFW is a GTK front-end for UFW that aims to make managing a Linux firewall as accessible and easy as possible. It features pre-sets for common ports and p2p applications.

If it is not installed already gufw can be installed from the repos:

user $ pamac install gufw COPY TO CLIPBOARD


It will now be available in the menu as Firewall Configuration or by running gufw directly.

iptables

iptables is included as part of the Linux kernel. iptables is significantly more complicated than using a tool like UFW. As a result, a full tutorial on iptables is beyond the scope of this wiki. Using iptables on Manjaro should be the same for every distribution of Linux so there is plenty of available documentation. Some of this is linked below. Here are some basics to get you started.

To enable loading rules on startup you can use the command:

user $ sudo systemctl enable iptables.service COPY TO CLIPBOARD


This will load the rules from the file /etc/iptables/iptables.rules.

To display the currently loaded rules:

user $ sudo iptables -L COPY TO CLIPBOARD


To save the current rules to a file

user $ sudo sh -c "iptables-save > /etc/iptables/iptables.rules" /etc/iptables/iptables.rules" " aria-disabled="false">COPY TO CLIPBOARD


To load the rules from a file

user $ sudo sh -c "iptables-restore > /etc/iptables/iptables.rules" /etc/iptables/iptables.rules" " aria-disabled="false">COPY TO CLIPBOARD


To allow ssh connections

user $ sudo iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT COPY TO CLIPBOARD


user $ sudo iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --sport 22 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT COPY TO CLIPBOARD


See Also

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