Manjaro Difference between revisions of "File Systems"

Difference between revisions of "File Systems"

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This page provides information on some of the file systems commonly used in Manjaro. It also shows where and how they are used. Further information on these and other file systems can be found in the ARCH Wiki
This page provides information on some of the filesystems commonly used in Manjaro. It also shows where and how they are used. Further information on these and other filesystems can be found in the ARCH Wiki.


<!--T:15-->
<!--T:15-->
A file system manages the space on a storage medium (hard disk, SSD ...). It makes this memory available to the operating system so that files can be saved and read again. Each of the following file systems has advantages and disadvantages. They are mostly developed for a special purpose and are therefore used in a certain environment.
A filesystem manages the space on a storage medium (hard disk, SSD ...). It makes this memory available to the operating system so that files can be saved and read again. Each of the following filesystems has advantages and disadvantages. They are mostly developed for a special purpose and are therefore used in a certain environment.


== Linux == <!--T:16-->
== Linux == <!--T:16-->


File systems that are mostly used under linux.
<!--T:32-->
filesystems that are mostly used under Linux.


Note that many file system drivers are already included in the Linux kernel. You may not need anything else to mount, read, or write these filesystems. But there are packages with additional tools. You may need them to format, check, repair, modify, or optimize such file systems. So if you regularly use a file system, it is a good idea to install the appropriate tools
<!--T:33-->
Note that many filesystem drivers are already included in the Linux kernel. You may not need anything else to mount, read, or write these filesystems. But there are packages with additional tools. You may need them to format, check, repair, modify, or optimize such filesystems. So if you regularly use a filesystem, it is a good idea to install the appropriate tools.


=== Ext2 → Ext3 → Ext4 ===
=== Ext2 → Ext3 → Ext4 === <!--T:34-->


Ext4 is the default file system in Manjaro at the moment. It is the evolution of the most used Linux filesystems (Ext3, Ext2) and promises improved design, better performance, reliability, and features over its predecessors.
<!--T:35-->
Ext4 is the default filesystem in Manjaro at the moment. It is the evolution of the most used Linux filesystems (Ext3, Ext2) and promises improved design, better performance, reliability, and features over its predecessors.


<!--T:36-->
If you are using Ext2 or Ext3, you can convert the partition to Ext4. Ext4 uses journaling, checksums and write barriers and is therefore more robust against damage.
If you are using Ext2 or Ext3, you can convert the partition to Ext4. Ext4 uses journaling, checksums and write barriers and is therefore more robust against damage.


<!--T:37-->
Currently Ext4 is fully supported in Win10 and OsX. Support for ext4 has been built in since WSL is included in Win10 (2016).
Currently Ext4 is fully supported in Win10 and OsX. Support for ext4 has been built in since WSL is included in Win10 (2016).


<!--T:38-->
see [https://ext4.wiki.kernel.org/ Ext4@kernel.org], [https://wiki.archlinux.org/title/Ext4 Ext4@ARCH-wiki], [https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ext4 Ext4@wikipedia]  
see [https://ext4.wiki.kernel.org/ Ext4@kernel.org], [https://wiki.archlinux.org/title/Ext4 Ext4@ARCH-wiki], [https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ext4 Ext4@wikipedia]  
<br>For advanced optimizations see  [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Ext4#Improving_performance Improving Ext4 performance@Archwiki].


====Install==== <!--T:17-->
====Install==== <!--T:17-->


In manjaro e2fsprogs is already installed
<!--T:39-->
In Manjaro, e2fsprogs is already installed


====Tips====
===Btrfs=== <!--T:20-->


For advanced optimizations see the [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Ext4#Improving_performance Archwiki Ext4 article].
<!--T:40-->
A modern '''C'''opy '''o'''n '''W'''rite filesystem for Linux aimed at implementing advanced features while also focusing on '''fault tolerance''', '''repair''' and '''easy administration'''. Btrfs not only is a filesystem, but also is partly a volume manager, software-raid, backup-tool, and it is flash-friendly.


===btrfs=== <!--T:20-->
<!--T:41-->
Because Btrfs is different, some things seem unfamiliar and strange. Then [https://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Main_Page Btrfs@kernel.org] is a good starting point to search for answers.


A modern file system with a lot of advanced features. Its main advantage it to be a '''C'''opy-'''O'''n-'''W'''rite-filesystem
<!--T:42-->
Development of Btrfs started in 2007. Since that time, Btrfs is a part of the Linux kernel and is under active development. The Btrfs code base is '''[https://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Status stable] .''' However, new features are still under development. Its main features and benefits are:
* '''Snapshots''' which do not make a full copy of files
* '''RAID''' - support for software-based RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 10
* '''Self-healing''' - checksums for data and metadata, automatic detection of silent data corruptions


see [https://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Main_Page btrfs@kernel.org], [https://wiki.archlinux.org/title/Btrfs Btrfs@ARC-wiki], [https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Btrfs Btrfs@wikipedia]
<!--T:43-->
see [https://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Main_Page Btrfs@kernel.org], [https://wiki.archlinux.org/title/Btrfs Btrfs@ARCH-wiki], [https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Btrfs Btrfs@wikipedia]


====Install==== <!--T:21-->
====Install==== <!--T:21-->


{{UserCmd|command=pamac install btrfs-progs}}
<!--T:44-->
<tvar|usercmd0>{{UserCmd|command=pamac install btrfs-progs}}</>


=== reiserfs → reiser4 === <!--T:18-->
=== ReiserFS → reiser4 === <!--T:18-->


Reiserf was the first journaling filesystem to be included in the standard kernel. It was actively used by some distros some time ago, but is not currently widely used. Reiser4 is the successor to reiserfs (3). However, Reiser4 seems not to be integrated in the kernel yet.
<!--T:45-->
ReiserFS was the first journaling filesystem to be included in the standard kernel. It was actively used by some distros some time ago, but is not currently widely used. Reiser4 is the successor to ReiserFS(3). However, Reiser4 seems not to be integrated in the kernel yet.


<!--T:46-->
see [https://wiki.archlinux.org/title/Reiser4 Reiser4@ARCH-wiki], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ReiserFS ReiserFS@wikipedia], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reiser4 Reiser4@wikipedia], [https://reiser4.wiki.kernel.org/ Reiser4@kernel.org]
see [https://wiki.archlinux.org/title/Reiser4 Reiser4@ARCH-wiki], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ReiserFS ReiserFS@wikipedia], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reiser4 Reiser4@wikipedia], [https://reiser4.wiki.kernel.org/ Reiser4@kernel.org]


====Install==== <!--T:19-->
====Install==== <!--T:19-->


{{UserCmd|command=pamac install reiserfsprogs reiser4progs}}
<!--T:47-->
<tvar|usercmd2>{{UserCmd|command=pamac install reiserfsprogs reiser4progs}}</>


== Windows == <!--T:22-->
== Windows == <!--T:22-->


File systems mostly used in windows
<!--T:48-->
filesystems mostly used in windows


=== NTFS ===
=== NTFS === <!--T:49-->


This today is used by most windows installs
<!--T:50-->
It is the most widely used filesystem on windows these days. It does exist in different versions, but unlike FAT32, all of them offer the following points:
* Large files> 4GB
* Long file names with UTF16 up to 255 characters
* Rights management, ACL
* Journaling of metadata
* Compression, encryption, ...


<!--T:51-->
Currently there are some restrictions when using NTFS with Linux. If windows is suddenly switched off or goes into hibernating, the NTFS filesystem is left in a "dirty-state". When Windows starts again, NTFS is the first to be cleaned. This operation is currently not supported by the Linux driver. Then Linux shows the NTFS filesystem as read-only to be on the safe side.
<!--T:53-->
see [https://wiki.archlinux.org/title/NTFS NTFS@ARCH-wiki], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NTFS NTFS@wikipedia]
see [https://wiki.archlinux.org/title/NTFS NTFS@ARCH-wiki], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NTFS NTFS@wikipedia]


====Install====  <!--T:23-->
<!--T:52-->
{{warning |If you regularly switch between Windows and Linux, you should switch off "hibernation", "Hybrid Boot", "Fast Boot" in Windows. Then Linux has always full (read / write) access to NTFS drives.
* [https://forum.manjaro.org/t/all-of-my-files-are-in-read-only-mode/83777/7 all-of-my-files-are-in-read-only-mode@forum]
}}


{{UserCmd|command=pamac install ntfs-3g}}
====Install==== <!--T:23-->
 
<!--T:54-->
<tvar|usercmd3>{{UserCmd|command=pamac install ntfs-3g}}</>


== DOS == <!--T:24-->
== DOS == <!--T:24-->


File systems under DOS and early windows on a lot of floppydisks and USB-sticks
<!--T:55-->
filesystems under DOS and early windows on a lot of floppydisks and USB-sticks


=== FAT16 → FAT32 (+VFAT) ===
=== FAT16 → FAT32 (+VFAT) === <!--T:56-->


This is a traditional file system under DOS and early Windows versions. Even today it can be found on many floppy disks, USB sticks and hard drives. It is supported by all types of operating systems and is therefore often used to exchange files, to pass them on, or to keep them accessible to both operating systems in the case of dualboot.
<!--T:57-->
This is a traditional filesystem under DOS and early Windows versions. Even today it can be found on many floppy disks, USB sticks and hard drives. It is supported by all types of operating systems and is therefore often used to exchange files, to pass them on, or to keep them accessible to both operating systems in the case of dualboot.


<!--T:58-->
Even with FAT32, this comes not without its disadvantages.
Even with FAT32, this comes not without its disadvantages.
* no support for user rights or xattr
* no support for user rights or xattr
Line 82: Line 121:
* not robust
* not robust


<!--T:59-->
{{warning | FAT Filesystems do not use journaling. Data on such filesystems is vulnerable to irreparable corruption due to ''improper ejection or power outage''.}}
{{warning | FAT Filesystems do not use journaling. Data on such filesystems is vulnerable to irreparable corruption due to ''improper ejection or power outage''.}}


<!--T:60-->
see [https://wiki.archlinux.org/title/FAT FAT@ARCH-wiki], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_Allocation_Table FAT@wikipedia]
see [https://wiki.archlinux.org/title/FAT FAT@ARCH-wiki], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_Allocation_Table FAT@wikipedia]


====Install==== <!--T:25-->
====Install==== <!--T:25-->


{{UserCmd|command=pamac install dosfstools}}
<!--T:61-->
<tvar|usercmd4>{{UserCmd|command=pamac install dosfstools}}</>


=== exFAT === <!--T:26-->
=== exFAT === <!--T:26-->


Microsoft developed the exFAT (Extended File Alocation Table) in 2006 and optimized it for flash memories such as USB sticks and SD cards. It can store large files and large numbers of files, and it can manage very large partitions. It is supported by Linux, Windows, macOS and many other devices and is one of the most compatible file systems. ExFAT is included in Linux 5.4.
<!--T:62-->
Microsoft developed the exFAT (Extended File Allocation Table) in 2006 and optimized it for flash memories such as USB sticks and SD cards. It can store large files and large numbers of files, and it can manage very large partitions. It is supported by Linux, Windows, macOS and many other devices and is one of the most compatible filesystems. ExFAT is included in Linux 5.4 and higher.


<!--T:63-->
* Flash friendly
* Flash friendly
* No support for user rights or xattr
* No support for user rights or xattr
Line 101: Line 145:
* Not robust
* Not robust


<!--T:64-->
{{warning | exFAT FS does not use journaling. Data on such a filesystem is vulnerable to irreparable corruption due to ''improper ejection or power outage''.}}
{{warning | exFAT FS does not use journaling. Data on such a filesystem is vulnerable to irreparable corruption due to ''improper ejection or power outage''.}}


Line 106: Line 151:
see [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ExFAT ExFAT@wikipedia]
see [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ExFAT ExFAT@wikipedia]


====Install==== <!--T:28-->
====Install==== <!--T:28-->


{{UserCmd|command=pamac install exfatprogs}}
<!--T:65-->
<tvar|usercmd5>{{UserCmd|command=pamac install exfatprogs}}</>


== macOS == <!--T:29-->
== macOS == <!--T:29-->


Filesystems mostly used in macOs
<!--T:66-->
Filesystems mostly used in macOS


=== HFS → HFS+ ===
=== HFS → HFS+ === <!--T:67-->


<!--T:68-->
see [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HFS_Plus HFSPlus@wikipedia]
see [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HFS_Plus HFSPlus@wikipedia]


====Install from AUR====
====Install from AUR==== <!--T:69-->


{{UserCmd|command=pamac install hfsprogs}}
<!--T:70-->
<tvar|usercmd6>{{UserCmd|command=pamac install hfsprogs}}</>


== Others == <!--T:30-->
== Others == <!--T:30-->


=== XFS ===
=== XFS === <!--T:71-->


<!--T:72-->
see [https://wiki.archlinux.org/title/XFS XFS@ARCH-wiki]
see [https://wiki.archlinux.org/title/XFS XFS@ARCH-wiki]


===ZFS===
===ZFS=== <!--T:73-->


<!--T:74-->
see [https://wiki.archlinux.org/title/ZFS ZFS@ARCH-wiki]
see [https://wiki.archlinux.org/title/ZFS ZFS@ARCH-wiki]


==Comparisions==
==Comparisions== <!--T:75-->
 
</translate>
{| class="wikitable sortable"
{| class="wikitable sortable"
|+ Possible usage of Filesystems
|+<translate><!--T:76--> Possible usage of Filesystems</translate>
|-
|-
! Filesystem !! manjaro !! Win10 !! OsX !! Win9x, DOS
!Filesystem!!Manjaro!!Win10!!OSX!!Win9x, DOS
|-
|-
|ext2||||▷ ExtFS||||  
|ext2||||▷ ExtFS||||
|-
|-
|ext3/4||||▷ ExtFS||?||  
|ext3/4||||▷ ExtFS||?||
|-
|-
|btrfs||● btrfs-progs||▷ ExtFS, WinBtrfs||-||-
|btrfs||● btrfs-progs||▷ ExtFS, WinBtrfs||-||-
Line 149: Line 200:
|reiser4||○ reiserfs||?||?||-
|reiser4||○ reiserfs||?||?||-
|-
|-
|NTFS||○ ntfs-3g<br>▶ 5.15?? ntfs3||||?||  
|NTFS||○ ntfs-3g<br>▶ 5.15?? ntfs3||||?||
|-
|-
|FAT32||● dosfstools||||||
|FAT32||● dosfstools||||||
|-
|-
|exFAT||▶ 5.4 exfatprogs||||?||?
|exFAT||▶ 5.4 exfatprogs||||?||?
|-
|-
|HFS||○ hfsprogs (AUR)||?||||  
|HFS||○ hfsprogs (AUR)||?||||
|-
|-
|XFS||?||▷ ExtFS||?||
|XFS||?||▷ ExtFS||?||
|-
|-
|ZFS||?||?||?||
|ZFS||?||?||?||
|}
|}
  ■ = fully supported
<translate>
● = fully supported, additional tools to install
 
  <!--T:77-->
● = fully supported, additional tools to install
  ▶ = included since kernel x.x.x  
  ▶ = included since kernel x.x.x  
  ○ = partially supported
  ○ = partially supported
Line 168: Line 221:
  ? = feel free to extend ;-)
  ? = feel free to extend ;-)


<!--T:78-->
{| class="wikitable sortable"
{| class="wikitable sortable"
|+ Some important properties
|+ Some important properties
Line 198: Line 252:
|}
|}


=See also= <!--T:31-->
=See also= <!--T:31-->


<!--T:79-->
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ExFAT Wikipedia:exFAT]<br />
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ExFAT Wikipedia:exFAT]<br />
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_file_systems Wikipedia:Comparison of file systems]<br />
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_file_systems Wikipedia:Comparison of filesystems]<br />
[https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Filesystems Archwiki:File Systems]<br />  
[https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Filesystems Archwiki:filesystems]<br />  
</translate>
</translate>
[[Category:Contents Page{{#translation:}}]]
[[Category:Contents Page{{#translation:}}]]
[[Category:File Systems{{#translation:}}]]
[[Category:filesystems{{#translation:}}]]

Latest revision as of 11:58, 16 October 2021

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This page provides information on some of the filesystems commonly used in Manjaro. It also shows where and how they are used. Further information on these and other filesystems can be found in the ARCH Wiki.

A filesystem manages the space on a storage medium (hard disk, SSD ...). It makes this memory available to the operating system so that files can be saved and read again. Each of the following filesystems has advantages and disadvantages. They are mostly developed for a special purpose and are therefore used in a certain environment.

Linux

filesystems that are mostly used under Linux.

Note that many filesystem drivers are already included in the Linux kernel. You may not need anything else to mount, read, or write these filesystems. But there are packages with additional tools. You may need them to format, check, repair, modify, or optimize such filesystems. So if you regularly use a filesystem, it is a good idea to install the appropriate tools.

Ext2 → Ext3 → Ext4

Ext4 is the default filesystem in Manjaro at the moment. It is the evolution of the most used Linux filesystems (Ext3, Ext2) and promises improved design, better performance, reliability, and features over its predecessors.

If you are using Ext2 or Ext3, you can convert the partition to Ext4. Ext4 uses journaling, checksums and write barriers and is therefore more robust against damage.

Currently Ext4 is fully supported in Win10 and OsX. Support for ext4 has been built in since WSL is included in Win10 (2016).

see Ext4@kernel.org, Ext4@ARCH-wiki, Ext4@wikipedia
For advanced optimizations see Improving Ext4 performance@Archwiki.

Install

In Manjaro, e2fsprogs is already installed

Btrfs

A modern Copy on Write filesystem for Linux aimed at implementing advanced features while also focusing on fault tolerance, repair and easy administration. Btrfs not only is a filesystem, but also is partly a volume manager, software-raid, backup-tool, and it is flash-friendly.

Because Btrfs is different, some things seem unfamiliar and strange. Then Btrfs@kernel.org is a good starting point to search for answers.

Development of Btrfs started in 2007. Since that time, Btrfs is a part of the Linux kernel and is under active development. The Btrfs code base is stable . However, new features are still under development. Its main features and benefits are:

  • Snapshots which do not make a full copy of files
  • RAID - support for software-based RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 10
  • Self-healing - checksums for data and metadata, automatic detection of silent data corruptions

see Btrfs@kernel.org, Btrfs@ARCH-wiki, Btrfs@wikipedia

Install

user $ pamac install btrfs-progs COPY TO CLIPBOARD


ReiserFS → reiser4

ReiserFS was the first journaling filesystem to be included in the standard kernel. It was actively used by some distros some time ago, but is not currently widely used. Reiser4 is the successor to ReiserFS(3). However, Reiser4 seems not to be integrated in the kernel yet.

see Reiser4@ARCH-wiki, ReiserFS@wikipedia, Reiser4@wikipedia, Reiser4@kernel.org

Install

user $ pamac install reiserfsprogs reiser4progs COPY TO CLIPBOARD


Windows

filesystems mostly used in windows

NTFS

It is the most widely used filesystem on windows these days. It does exist in different versions, but unlike FAT32, all of them offer the following points:

  • Large files> 4GB
  • Long file names with UTF16 up to 255 characters
  • Rights management, ACL
  • Journaling of metadata
  • Compression, encryption, ...

Currently there are some restrictions when using NTFS with Linux. If windows is suddenly switched off or goes into hibernating, the NTFS filesystem is left in a "dirty-state". When Windows starts again, NTFS is the first to be cleaned. This operation is currently not supported by the Linux driver. Then Linux shows the NTFS filesystem as read-only to be on the safe side.

see NTFS@ARCH-wiki, NTFS@wikipedia


Warning
If you regularly switch between Windows and Linux, you should switch off "hibernation", "Hybrid Boot", "Fast Boot" in Windows. Then Linux has always full (read / write) access to NTFS drives.

Install

user $ pamac install ntfs-3g COPY TO CLIPBOARD


DOS

filesystems under DOS and early windows on a lot of floppydisks and USB-sticks

FAT16 → FAT32 (+VFAT)

This is a traditional filesystem under DOS and early Windows versions. Even today it can be found on many floppy disks, USB sticks and hard drives. It is supported by all types of operating systems and is therefore often used to exchange files, to pass them on, or to keep them accessible to both operating systems in the case of dualboot.

Even with FAT32, this comes not without its disadvantages.

  • no support for user rights or xattr
  • severely restricted file names (8.3 or LFN for VFAT, no distinction between lowercase and uppercase)
  • no files over 2GB (FAT16) 4GB (FAT32)
  • no journaling
  • not robust


Warning
FAT Filesystems do not use journaling. Data on such filesystems is vulnerable to irreparable corruption due to improper ejection or power outage.

see FAT@ARCH-wiki, FAT@wikipedia

Install

user $ pamac install dosfstools COPY TO CLIPBOARD


exFAT

Microsoft developed the exFAT (Extended File Allocation Table) in 2006 and optimized it for flash memories such as USB sticks and SD cards. It can store large files and large numbers of files, and it can manage very large partitions. It is supported by Linux, Windows, macOS and many other devices and is one of the most compatible filesystems. ExFAT is included in Linux 5.4 and higher.

  • Flash friendly
  • No support for user rights or xattr
  • Files over 4 GB
  • Checksums for metadata
  • No journal
  • Not robust


Warning
exFAT FS does not use journaling. Data on such a filesystem is vulnerable to irreparable corruption due to improper ejection or power outage.

see ExFAT@wikipedia

Install

user $ pamac install exfatprogs COPY TO CLIPBOARD


macOS

Filesystems mostly used in macOS

HFS → HFS+

see HFSPlus@wikipedia

Install from AUR

user $ pamac install hfsprogs COPY TO CLIPBOARD


Others

XFS

see XFS@ARCH-wiki

ZFS

see ZFS@ARCH-wiki

Comparisions

Possible usage of Filesystems
Filesystem Manjaro Win10 OSX Win9x, DOS
ext2 ▷ ExtFS
ext3/4 ▷ ExtFS ?
btrfs ● btrfs-progs ▷ ExtFS, WinBtrfs - -
reiser3 ● reiser4progs ▷ RFSTool ? -
reiser4 ○ reiserfs ? ? -
NTFS ○ ntfs-3g
▶ 5.15?? ntfs3
?
FAT32 ● dosfstools
exFAT ▶ 5.4 exfatprogs ? ?
HFS ○ hfsprogs (AUR) ?
XFS ? ▷ ExtFS ?
ZFS ? ? ?
● = fully supported, additional tools to install
▶ = included since kernel x.x.x 
○ = partially supported
▷ = possible via external tools
? = feel free to extend ;-)
Some important properties
Properties ext2 ext3 ext4 btrfs reiserfs(3) XFS
journaling - ● ordered ● ordered ● full ▶ 2.6
barriers -
checksum - - ◎ metadata ● full
kompression - - - ●,
zstd ▶ 4.14/5.1
encryption - - ▶ 4.13 -
snapshots - - - -
TRIM possible - - ▶ 2.6.33 ▶ 4.3
xattr, ACL ? ACL ACL ACL
small repair ● fsck ● fsck ● fsck ● auto reiserfsck
journal repair ● fsck ● fsck ● fsck ● auto 3.2
repair after power loss - ? ● tune2fs, fsck ● auto, scrub
since 1993 2001 2008 2009 2001

See also

Wikipedia:exFAT
Wikipedia:Comparison of filesystems
Archwiki:filesystems

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